Stone Types
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Stone Types


abalone Abalone Shells have a low open spiral structure, and are characterized by several open respiratory pores in a row near the shell's outer edge. The thick inner layer of the shell is composed ofmother-of-pearl, which in many species is highly iridescent giving rise to a range of strong changeable colors, which make the shells attractive to humans as decorative objects, jewelry, and as a source of colorful mother-of-pearl.
Abalone Shell Jewelry


agate Agates are a microcrystalline variety of silica, chiefly chalcedonay, characterized by its fineness of grain and brightness of color. Although agates may be found in various kinds of rock, they are classically associated with volcanicrocks. Most agates occur as nodules in volcanicrocks or ancient lavas, in former cavities produced by volatilesin the original molten mass, which were then filled, wholly or partially, by siliceous matter deposited in regular layers upon the walls. Agate has also been known to fill veins or cracks in volcanic or altered rock underlain by granitic intrusive masses. Such agates, when cut transversely, exhibit a succession of parallel lines giving a banded appearance to the section. Such stones are known asBotswana Agate andStriped Agate. In the formation of an ordinary agate, it is probable that waters containing silica in solution—derived, perhaps, from the decomposition of some of the silicates in the lava itself—percolated through the rock and deposited a siliceous coating on the interior of the vesicles. Variations in the character of the solution or in the conditions of deposition may cause a corresponding variation in the successive layers, so that bands of chalcedonayoften alternate with layers of crystalline quartz. Several vapor-vesicles may unite while the rock is still viscous, and thus form a large cavity which may become the home of an agate of exceptional size.
Agate Jewelry


alexandrite Alexandrites display a color change (alexandrite effect) dependent upon the nature of ambient lighting. Alexandrite effect is the phenomenon of an observed color change from greenish to reddish with a change in source illumination due to physiological response of the human eye in a particular part of the visible spectrum. This color change is independent of any change of hue with viewing direction through the crystal. Alexandrite results from small scale replacement of aluminum by chromium ions in the crystal structure, which causes intense absorption of light over a narrow range of wavelengths in the yellow region of the spectrum. Alexandrite from the Ural Mountains in Russia can be green by daylight and red by incandescent light. Other varieties of alexandrite may be yellowish or pink in daylight and a raspberryred by incandescent light. Due to the rarity and resulting price of natural Alexandrite, all of the stones I use result in the same color change effects but are lab created.
Alexandrite Jewelry




amethyst3Amethyst is the most precious and valuable stone belonging to the quartz group of minerals, with exception to rare blue-green gem silica. It is recognized as the official birthstone for the month of February. Amethyst belongs to the macrocrystalline branch of quartz and owes its violet/purple color to iron and aluminum impurities. Without such coloring agents, amethyst would simply be transparent, ordinary colorless quartz. Like other varieties of macrocrystalline quartz, amethyst has transparent to translucent clarity and a vitreous luster. Cryptocrystalline varieties of quartz almost always occur with translucent to opaque clarity. Amethyst is the violet-colored sister stone of golden citrine quartz. 
Amethyst Jewelry




balticamber Baltic Amber comes from the Baltic Region of Russia and Poland,home to the largest known deposit of amber. It dates from 44 million years ago and It has been estimated that these forests created over 105tons of amber. Don’t be fooled by imitation amber that has been coming out of China. My source is the real deal!
Baltic Amber Jewelry


chakra Chakras are 7 stones that In Hindu and tantric/yogic traditions and other belief systems represent the 7 energy points or knots in the subtle body. They are located at the physical counterparts of the major plexuses of arteries, veins and nerves. Chakras are part of the subtle body, not the physical body, and as such are the meeting points of the subtle (non-physical) energy channels, called nadiis. Nadiis are channels in the subtle body through which the life force (prana), or vital energy moves. Various scriptural texts and teachings present a different number of chakras. There are many chakras in the subtle human body according to the tantric texts, but there are 7 chakras that are considered to be the most important ones. Their name derives from the Sanskrit word for "wheel" or "turning", but in the yogic context a better translation of the word is "vortex" or "whirlpool".
Chakra Jewelry



chalcedonay Chalcedonays are a cryptocrystalline form of silica, composed of very fine intergrowths of the minerals quartz and moganite. These are both silica minerals, but they differ in that quartz has a trigonal crystal structure, while moganite is monoclinic. Chalcedonay's standard chemical structure (based on the chemical structure of quartz) is SiO2 (silicon dioxide). Chalcedony has a waxy luster, and may be semitransparent or translucent. It can assume a wide range of colors, but those most commonly seen are white to gray, grayish-blue or a shade of brown ranging from pale to nearly black.
Chalcedonay Jewelry



citrine Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown. Natural/Pure citrines are rare; most commercial citrines are heat-treated. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visually, but they differ in hardness. Citrine has ferric impurities, and is rarely found naturally. Brazil is the leading producer of citrine, with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal, which is then referred to as ametrine. 
Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November.
Citrine Jewelry


coralCoral Fossils come from simple animals, characterized by their radial symmetry and lack of well-developed organs. The polyp, the soft part of the coral, is essentially a small digestive sack made up of an inner and outer wall, separated by a gelatinous layer. The mouth, surrounded by stinging tentacles, forms an opening through which food enters and waste products are expelled. The hard external skeleton is secreted by the polyp's outer wall. These calcium carbonate structures are the part of the animal most likely to be preserved as a fossil. As fossils, corals are found worldwide in sedimentary rocks. Based on these fossils, we know that the corals began their long evolutionary history in the Middle Cambrian, over 510 million years ago. 


                                                                                                 Coral Fossil Jewelry


dichroic Dichroic Glass is the term used to describe two completely different types of glass which undergo a color change in certain lighting conditions. One material is a modern composite non-translucent glass that is produced by stacking layers of glass and micro-layers of metals or oxides which give the glass shifting colors depending on the angle of view, causing an array of colors to be displayed as an example of thin-film optics. The resulting glass is used for decorative purposes such as stained glass, jewelry and such, and although bearing the commercial title of "dichroic" can also be "trichroic" or can display any form of pleochroism and even iridescence in some cases, the terminology being more precise when it is produced for interference filters for laboratory use. For jewelry it is almost always refered to as dichroic.

The other dichroic glass material first appeared in a few pieces of Roman glass from the 4th century and consists of a translucent glass containing colloidal gold and silver particles dispersed in the glass matrix in certain proportions so that the glass has the property of displaying a particular transmitted color and a completely different reflected color.
Dichroic Glass Jewelry


druzyDruzy is the glittering effect of tiny crystals over top a colorful mineral. It is beautiful when used in making jewelry. One of the perks to druzy stones is that they are not as expensive as big faceted gemstones and they have sparkle and great color and it can be cut into various shapes with ease. The druzy quartz gems grow slowly over millions of years and are found as the very last layer of growth on agate or another colorful base. It does not always refer to quartz, druzy is any kind of mineral found in a plate-like form, such as garnets, calcite, dolomite and malachite. Common colors are white, yellow, brown, red, and orange. Druzy style beads are great for centerpieces in pendants. While they look sparkly and delicate, druzy quartz is a fairly durable gem.
Druzy Jewelry





garnetGarnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. All species of garnets possess similar physical properties and crystal forms, but differ in chemical composition. Garnet species are found in many colors including red, orange, yellow, green, purple, brown, blue, black, pink and colorless.
Garnet Jewelry



irontigereyeIron Tiger Eye is an altered rock composed chiefly of tiger's eye, red jasper, and black hematite. The undulating, contrasting bands of color and luster make for an attractive motif, and it is mainly used for jewelry-making and ornamentation. Iron Tiger Eye is mined primarily in South Africa and Western Australia. Iron Tiger Eye is composed chiefly of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and is colored mainly by iron oxide.
Iron Tiger Eye Jewelry



jasper Jaspers  are an opaque rock of virtually any color stemming from the mineral content of the original sediments or ash. Patterns arise during the consolidation process forming flow and depositional patterns in the original silica rich sediment or volcanic ash. Hydrothermal circulation is generally thought to be required in the formation of jasper. Jasper can be modified naturally by the diffusion of minerals along discontinuities providing the appearance of vegetative growth. The original materials are often fractured and/or distorted, after deposition, into myriad beautiful patterns which are to be later filled with other colorful minerals. Weathering, with time, will create intensely colored superficial rinds.

The classification and naming of jasper presents a challenge. Terms attributed to various well-defined materials includes the geographic locality where it is found, sometimes quite restricted to a canyon or a lake, river and even individual mountains.

Picture jaspers exhibit combinations of patterns (such as banding from flow or depositional patterns (from water or wind), dendritic or color variations) resulting in what appear to be scenes or images, on a cut section. Diffusion from a center produces a distinctive orbicular appearance, i.e., Leopard Skin Jasper, or linear banding from a fracture as seen in Leisegang Jasper. Healed, fragmented rock produces brecciated (broken) jasper.
Jasper Jewelry



labradorite Labradorites  usually come from Paul's Island near the town of Nain in Labrador, Canada. It has also been reported in Norway and various other locations worldwide. Labradorite occurs in mafic igneous rocks and is the feldspar variety most common in basalt and gabbro. The uncommon anorthosite bodies are composed almost entirely of labradorite. It also is found in metamorphic amphibolites and as a detrital component of some sediments. Common mineral associates in igneous rocks include olivine, pyroxenes, amphiboles and magnetite.


Labradorescence is a side-effect of the molecular change which occurs in large crystal masses of anorthosite, producing an iridescent play of colors similar to adularescence. This labradorescence, or schiller effect, is the result of light diffraction within the lamellar intergrowths – fine, adjacent layers of the separate materials (lamallae) comprising the whole rock phase – created when conditions do not allow for sufficient diffusion to the materials' equilibrium composition. The cause of this optical phenomenon is phase exsolution, or phase (state) instability, occurring in the Bøggild miscibility gap (An48-An58); under the appropriate heat and pressure conditions the separate molecular components will coexist but not mix to a solution, producing the phenomenon.
Labradorite Jewelry



lapis Lapis Lazuli (sometimes abbreviated to Lapis) is a deep blue semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color. Lapis Lazuli was being mined in northeast Afghanistan as early as the 7th millenium BC. Lapis beads have been found at neolithic burials in Mehrgarh, the Caucasus and even as far from Afghanistan as Mauritania. It was even used for the eyebrows on the funeral mask of King Tut!

At the end of the Middle Ages, lapis lazuli began to be exported to Europe, where it was ground into powder and made into ultramarine, the finest and most expensive of all blue pigments. It was used by the most important artists of the Renaissance period and was often reserved for the clothing of the central figure of the painting, especially the Virgin Mary.

Today mines in northeast Afghanistan are still the major source of Lapis Lazuli. Important amounts are also produced from mines west of Lake Baikalin in Russia, and in the Andes mountains in Chile. Smaller quantities are mined in Italy, Mongolia, the United States and Canada.
Lapis Lazuli Jewelry



larimar Larimar is a rare blue variety of pectolite found only in the Dominican Republic. Its coloration varies from white, light-blue, green-blue to deep blue. The most important outcrop of blue pectolite is located at Los Chupaderos, in the section of Los Checheses, about 10 kilometers southwest of the city of Barahona, in the south-western region of the Dominican Republic. It is a single mountainside now perforated with approximately 2,000 vertical shafts, surrounded by rainforest vegetation and deposits of blue-colored mine tailings. Quality grading is according to coloration and the typical mineral crystal configuration in the stone. Larimar also comes in green and even with red spots, brown strikes etc. due to other materials naturally combining and/or oxidation. But the more intense the blue, and the contrasts in the stone, the higher and rarer is the quality. 
Larimar Jewelry


malachite Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. This opaque, green banded mineral crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, and most often forms botryoidal, fibrous, or stalagmitic masses, in fractures and spaces, deep underground where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicular prisms. Typical malachite is laminated and whether or not microbes intervene in its formation is unknown.
Malachite Jewelry



onyx Onyx is a banded variety of chalcedonay. The colors of its bands range from white to almost every color (save some shades, such as purple or blue). Commonly, specimens of onyx contain bands of black and/or white.
Onyx Jewelry


opalOpals are a hydrated amorphous form of silica; its water content may range from 3% to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6% and 10%. Because of its amorphous character it is classed as a mineraloid, unlike the other crystalline forms of silica which are classed as minerals. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia, which produces 97% of the world's supply. A large deposit of beautiful opals were discovered in Ethiopia in the late 20th Century and I feature many of these beautiful stones in my work. The internal structure of precious opal makes it diffract light; depending on the conditions in which it formed, it can take on many colors. Precious opal ranges from clear through white, gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, magenta, rose, pink, slate, olive, brown, and black. Of these hues, the reds against black are the most rare, whereas white and greens are the most common. It varies in optical density from opaque to semi-transparent.
Opal Jewelry




quartz1 150x150Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust, after feldspar. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon-oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall formula SiO2. There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones. Especially in Europe and the Middle East, varieties of quartz have been in use since antiquity as the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings.
Quartz Jewelry




rainbowmoonstone5 Rainbow Moonstone has been used in jewelry for centuries, including ancient civilizations. The Romans admired moonstone, as they believed it was born from solidified rays of the moon. Both the Romans and Greeks associated Moonstone with their lunar deities. In more recent history, the moonstone became popular during the Art Nouveau period; French goldsmith Rene Lalique and many others created a large quantity of jewelry using this stone.
Rainbow Moonstone Jewelry


sunsitara Sun Sitaras, also known as Goldstone is a type of glittering glass made in a low-oxygen reducing atmosphere. The finished product can take a smooth polish and be carved into beads, figurines or other artifacts suitable for semi-precious stones, and in fact sun sitara is often mistaken for a natural material.
Sun Sitara Jewelry


Titanium Druzys are Quartz crystals mined from extinct volcanoes had pockets of minerals and gasses trapped with them during a shift in the tectonic plates about 250 million years ago. Carefully mined by a few specialist miners, they receive an ionic coating and heat treatment to bring out their amazing colors. These will pick up on any color they are worn with and are far more stunning in person that the pictures lead you to believe                                                                                                                                                                                            .Titanium Druzy Jewelry



topazTopaz in it’s pure form is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities giving it color.Typical topaz is white, yellow, pale gray, reddish-orange, or blue brown. It can also be pale green, blue, gold, pink (rare), reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent. Blue topazis the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. Typically, colorless, gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated andirradiatedto produce a more desired darker blue. Mystic topaz and Rainbow Mystic topaz are colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect.Topaz Jewelry




tourmaline Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminum, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium or potassium. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Turmali" or "Thoramalli" which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka.

                                                                        Tourmaline Jewelry


turquoise Turquoise is considered a secondary mineral. It apparrently forms by the action of percolating acidic aqueous solutions during the weathering and oxidation of pre-existing minerals. For example, the copper may come from primary copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite or from the secondary carbonates malachite or azurite; the aluminium may derive from feldspar; and the phosphorus from apatite. Climate factors appear to play an important role as turquoise is typically found in arid regions, filling or encrusting cavities and fractures in typically highly altered volcanic rocks, often with associated limonite and other iron oxides. In the American southwest turquoise is almost invariably associated with the weathering products of copper sulfide deposits in or around potassium feldspar bearing porphyritic intrusives.Typically turquoise mineralization is restricted to a relatively shallow depth of less than 20 metres (66 ft), although it does occur along deeper fracture zones where secondary solutions have greater penetration or the depth to the water table is greater.

                                                                         Turquoise Jewelry